In the early 20th century, the Ottoman Empire controlled much of the Middle East, including the territory of modern-day Saudi Arabia. However, with the decline of the Ottoman Empire, various Arab tribes sought to break away and establish their own independent states.
In 1915, the Ottoman Empire and Ibn Saud, the founder of the Saudi state, signed an agreement known as the Treaty of Darin. The treaty recognized Ibn Saud as the ruler of Najd and its dependencies, which included much of modern-day Saudi Arabia, and granted him a monthly stipend in return for his support of the Ottoman Empire during World War I.
However, as the war progressed and the Ottoman Empire began to crumble, Ibn Saud saw an opportunity to expand his territory and consolidate his power. In 1925, he launched a campaign to conquer the Hejaz region, which was controlled by the Ottoman-backed Sharif of Mecca.
After a series of battles, Ibn Saud emerged victorious and declared himself King of Hejaz. He then united his territories under the banner of the new Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, which was officially recognized by the international community in 1932.
Despite the initial agreement between the Ottoman Empire and Ibn Saud, the two powers ultimately found themselves on opposite sides of history. The Ottoman Empire collapsed in 1922, while Saudi Arabia continued to thrive under the leadership of the House of Saud.
Today, the Treaty of Darin serves as a reminder of the complex geopolitical struggles that have shaped the Middle East over the past century. It also highlights the enduring importance of diplomacy and negotiation in resolving conflicts and building lasting alliances, even in the face of seemingly insurmountable challenges.